Accessibility Tools


  • Ankle Ligament Injury

    Ankle Ligament Injury

    Ligaments are made up of elastic tissues that interconnect bones to one another.

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  • Foot and Ankle Arthritis

    Foot and Ankle Arthritis

    Arthritis is the inflammation of joints as a result of degeneration of the smooth cartilage that lines the ends of bones in a joint.

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  • Heel Spurs

    Heel Spurs

    The heel is made up of the calcaneus bone and supported by a network of muscles, tendons, ligaments and soft tissues, which together...

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  • Ankle Instability

    Ankle Instability

    The joints of the ankle are held in place and stabilized by strong bands of tissue called ligaments.

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  • Cavus Foot Deformity

    Cavus Foot Deformity

    Cavus foot also referred to as a high arch, is a condition in which the arch on the bottom of the foot that runs from the toes...

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  • Foot and Ankle Osteotomy

    Foot and Ankle Osteotomy

    Foot and ankle osteotomy is a surgery performed to remove parts of a bone in your foot or ankle that might be causing pain...

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  • Ganglion and Soft Tissue Tumors

    Ganglion and Soft Tissue Tumors

    A ganglion is a round, sac-like swelling or a fluid-filled lump under the skin near your foot and ankle joint.

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  • Blisters on Your Feet

    Blisters on Your Feet

    Blisters are fluid-filled bubble-like structures that develop as a response to an injury or infection to cushion and prevent...

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  • Foot Problems

    Foot Problems

    The foot is a highly complex part of the human body that has an integral role in most activities of daily living.

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  • Hallux Rigiditis

    Hallux Rigiditis

    Hallux Rigiditis is a form of degenerative arthritis at the metatarsophalangeal or MTP joint where the base of your big toe attaches...

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  • Lesser Toe Deformities

    Lesser Toe Deformities

    Lesser toe deformity is an abnormality in the anatomy of your toe that occurs as a result of imbalance between the intrinsic...

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  • Gordon Syndrome

    Gordon Syndrome

    Gordon syndrome, also known as distal arthrogryposis type 3, is a rare congenital genetic disorder that affects the movement...

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  • Fungal Problems (Foot)

    Fungal Problems (Foot)

    Fungal infections are common in people with sweaty feet and are often found between the toes, as various fungal pathogens...

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  • Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Achilles Tendon Rupture

    The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone.

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  • Shin Splints

    Shin Splints

    Shin splints or medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is pain around the tibia or shinbone due to inflammation of the tendons...

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  • Ollier Disease

    Ollier Disease

    Ollier disease, also known as enchondromatosis, is a disorder that affects the skeletal system.

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  • Hallux Limitus

    Hallux Limitus

    Hallux limitus is a condition characterized by stiffness and decreased movement of the big toe.

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  • Turf Toe

    Turf Toe

    Turf toe is an injury to the ligament at the base of the big toe. It is a painful condition that usually results from jamming...

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  • Foot & Ankle Trauma

    Foot and Ankle Trauma

    Foot and ankle trauma refers to injuries that most commonly occur during sports, exercise or any other physical activity.

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  • Achilles Tendon Bursitis

    Achilles Tendon Bursitis

    The Achilles tendon is the large tendon that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus) and is used when you walk...

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  • Athlete's Foot

    Athlete's Foot

    Athlete's foot, also known as tinea pedis, is a fungal infection that forms on the skin of the foot.

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  • Intoeing


    Intoeing, also called “pigeon-toed”, is an abnormal condition characterized by the inward facing of the toe...

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  • Foot Pain

    Foot Pain

    The foot is composed of bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As your feet bear the weight of your entire body, they are more...

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  • Ankle Pain

    Ankle Pain

    Ankle pain refers to any form of pain or discomfort affecting the ankle joint. Your ankles are more prone to injury and pain since...

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  • Heel Pain

    Heel Pain

    Heel pain is a common symptom of excessive strain placed on the structures that form the heel.

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  • Forefoot Pain

    Forefoot Pain

    Forefoot pain, also referred to as metatarsalgia, is a type of pain that occurs in the ball of the foot...

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  • Morton's Neuroma

    Morton's Neuroma

    Morton’s neuroma refers to a nerve injury that occurs between the toes, usually the third and fourth toes.

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  • Flatfoot


    Flatfoot, also known as “fallen arches” or Pes planus, is a deformity in children’s feet where the arch that runs...

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  • Fungal Nails

    Fungal Nails

    Fungal infections are common in nails and occur most often in toenails. Termed as onychomycosis, nail fungus affects...

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  • Ankle Dislocation

    Ankle Dislocation

    Ankle dislocation is a condition that occurs when the bones of the lower leg called the fibula and tibia get separated...

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  • Sesamoiditis


    Sesamoids are two small, pea-shaped bones located in the ball beneath the big toe joint at the bottom of the foot.

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  • Hammertoe


    A hammertoe is a deformity of a lesser toe (second through fifth toes), where the toe is bent upward at the toe’s middle joint...

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  • Nerve Conditions of the Foot

    Nerve Conditions of the Foot

    The foot is composed of bones, ligaments, nerves, muscles, and tendons. Nerve conditions of the foot can range from minor nerve injuries...

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  • Claw Toe

    Claw Toe

    Claw toe is a deformity where a toe bends and appears like a bird’s claw. The affected toe is bent upward from the joint...

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  • Congenital Limb Deformities

    Congenital Limb Deformities

    Limb deformities can be congenital (present at birth) or develop at a later stage because of a fracture, infection...

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  • Congenital Deformity and Clubfoot

    Congenital Deformity and Clubfoot

    Congenital deformities of the lower limbs are developmental disorders that are present at birth, causing alterations...

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  • Ingrown toenail

    Ingrown toenail

    An ingrown toenail is a common and painful condition of the toe. It occurs when the side or corner of the nail grows...

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  • Corns


    A corn is a circular area of thickened skin developed because of continuous friction or pressure.

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  • Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    The posterior tibial tendon passes through the ankle to attach the calf muscle with the bones of the midfoot.

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  • Foot Lesions

    Foot Lesions

    A foot lesion is an abnormal change in an area of skin on the foot. It may be caused by infection, injury...

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  • Heel Cracks

    Heel Cracks

    Heel cracks or fissures are the splitting or cracking of the skin on the outer edge of the heel due to excessive drying...

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  • Mallet Toe

    Mallet Toe

    Mallet toe is a deformity where the toe abnormally bends downward, resembling a hammer or mallet.

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  • Plantar Warts

    Plantar Warts

    Warts are harmless outgrowths on the skin caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection.

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  • Talar OCD (Osteochondritis Dissecans)

    Talar OCD (Osteochondritis Dissecans)

    The ankle joint is formed by the articulation of the end of the tibia and fibula (shinbones) with the talus (heel bone).

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  • Charcot Osteoarthropathy

    Charcot Osteoarthropathy

    Charcot osteoarthropathy is a progressively destructive and degenerative joint disorder that most commonly affects the foot and ankle...

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  • Subungual Exostosis

    Subungual Exostosis

    A subungual exostosis is a benign tumor of bone and cartilage protruding near the tip of a toe or finger, just under or adjacent to the nail.

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  • Achilles Tendinitis

    Achilles Tendinitis

    Inflammation of the Achilles tendon is known as Achilles tendinitis or tendonitis.

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  • Management of Foot and Leg Wounds

    Management of Foot and Leg Wounds

    Management of foot and leg wounds refers to the care or treatment employed for the management of lower extremity wounds until they heal...

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  • Metatarsalgia


    Metatarsalgia is a condition in which pain and inflammation are caused due to overuse or injury to the ball of the foot...

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  • Osteochondral Lesions of the Ankle

    Osteochondral Lesions of the Ankle

    The tibia and the fibula bones of the lower leg join with the talus bone to form the ankle joint...

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  • Charcot Foot Deformity

    Charcot Foot Deformity

    Charcot foot deformity, also known as Charcot arthropathy, is a condition characterized by weakness and inflammation of the bones...

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  • Stiff Big Toe (Hallux Rigidus)

    Stiff Big Toe (Hallux Rigidus)

    A stiff big toe, also called hallux rigidus, is a form of degenerative arthritis affecting the joint where the big toe...

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  • Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

    Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

    The tarsal tunnel is a narrow passageway that lies on the inside of your ankle and runs into the foot.

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  • Vertical Talus

    Vertical Talus

    Talus is a small bone in your ankle joint. It sits between the heel bone (calcaneus) and the confluence of two bones of the lower leg...

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  • Tarsal Coalition

    Tarsal Coalition

    Tarsal coalition is a foot disorder that occurs due to an abnormal connection between two or more tarsal bones.

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  • Acrocyanosis


    Acrocyanosis is a disorder of the peripheral vascular system characterized by a bluish coloration of the skin due to reduced oxygen...

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